Before the sowing of early rice, the seeds need to be treated, and the basic requirements of soaking and germination should be mastered in order to cultivate robust seedlings. Therefore, it is necessary to understand some specific technical requirements before and after soaking and germination.
Soaking seeds and germination "three elements." One is moisture. After the rice seeds suck a certain amount of water, the volume expands, the cells change the original dormant state, and the elongation and differentiation begin to be determined. When rice seeds absorb 20-25% of their own weight (ie, 100 kg of dry seeds absorb 20-25 kg), they begin to germinate. Therefore, it is necessary to soak for a certain period of time. The length of soaking time depends on the temperature of the water. Generally speaking, it takes 90 hours to absorb enough water when the water temperature is 10 Â°C. It needs to be soaked for 3-4 days. When the water temperature reaches 30 Â°C, it takes 40 hours to soak seeds. 2 days. At the time of germination, it is still necessary to maintain the state of the rice seedlings (the seed coat is moist, and the grain pile is not suitable for clear water). As the saying goes, "dry long roots, wet long buds", such as water shortage of seeds, short root buds, excessive moisture The buds are long and short, and they do not meet the requirements of strong shoots with the same length of root buds. The second is temperature. Rice seeds absorb enough water and have a suitable temperature to germinate. The temperature required for germination of rice seeds varies from species to species, but generally the lowest temperature is 10-12 Â°C. The optimum temperature is 30-32 Â° C, and the maximum temperature is 40 Â° C. When the temperature is lower than the lowest temperature, the germination is slow or even stopped. If the time is too long, it will cause rotten seeds; when the temperature is higher than the highest temperature, the germination is blocked and there is "burning" buds. Possibly, so the temperature should be strictly controlled when germination. The temperature before breaking the chest should be high, generally 38-40 Â° C, and the high temperature time is limited to 6-8 hours, not too long. Immediately after the chest is broken, the temperature should be lowered, maintain a temperature of 30-32 Â° C, and then sown in Putian. The third is oxygen. Rice seeds begin to germinate when they get enough water and proper temperature, but the supply of oxygen plays a leading role in sprouting. In the case of sufficient oxygen, the cellular respiration of the embryo is strengthened, the activity of the enzyme is accelerated, and the metabolism is vigorous. Although rice seeds undergo anaerobic respiration, they are deprived of oxygen for a long time, their buds are poorly developed, and even die due to lack of oxygen. Therefore, care should be taken to supply sufficient oxygen during soaking and germination. When soaking seeds, you can take the â€œthree-dip three-filterâ€ method (ie, soaking seeds for three days, soaking water every day during the day, and filtering water at night). It is better to soak the rice seeds in flowing water or change the fresh water every day. In this way, it can be ensured that the seeds are always in a condition of sufficient oxygen, which is beneficial to germination and long roots. Pay attention to the application of seeds such as sacks and cloth bags when germination, and do not use plastic bags and water tanks to make seeds.
Several jobs before planting. The first is the treatment of rice seeds. Seeding for 1-2 days before soaking seeds can enhance the water absorption capacity of seeds, increase seed temperature, accelerate enzyme conversion, increase germination rate and germination potential, and generally increase germination rate by 2-5%. After sun-cultivation, air-selection is carried out to remove glutinous grains, diseased grains, impurities and dust. If lime water or chemical treatment is required, it should be carried out in time after seed selection. The second is to do a good job of seed disinfection. Seed disinfection can kill a variety of species of pests and diseases. Generally, the seeds are pre-soaked for 12-24 hours after disinfection, and then disinfected with chemicals. Commonly used: 1% lime water solution soaking seeds for 12-24 hours; 250-300 times The liquid was immersed in strong chlorine for 12 hours; 3% of the carbendazim wettable powder was soaked in 300-400 times for 10-12 hours; and 35% of acetonide was soaked in 250 times for 24 hours. Wash the drug immediately after disinfection, and then continue soaking or germination. The third is to soak seeds with hormones or nutrient solution. Soaking seeds with 0.2-0.3 mg of natural alfalfa per kg for 12 hours can increase the activity of the enzyme, enhance the vigor of the seeds, promote the germination and germination, and improve the cold resistance and prevent rotten sputum. Hormone soaking can be done with seed disinfection or after disinfection. Soaking seeds with nutrient solution can also promote germination and improve the quality of seedlings. Commonly, 50% of the matured people are soaked in urine; 50-100%% of the biogas slurry is soaked; 0.1-0.2% zinc sulphate soaking can be combined with seed disinfection or hormone soaking.
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